Thursday, 19 September 2013

The new Sony Xperia M complete review and specification


Sony has made some great entry-level Android phones, but it's been a while since we saw a new model. The Xperia M injects new blood into the segment with both single and dual-SIM options. Based on the trademark Xperia design, the M scores high on looks and build quality. the one thing which i would like to say is the value for money gadget 

Sony Xperia M official images
The Sony Xperia M shares many of the design features that made its Xperia Z sibling such a looker, including the signature power key. It also has a hardware shutter key along with a couple of other features that are becoming quite rare in the smartphone world - a removable battery and a microSD card slot.
The Xperia M also offers a relatively big and sharp screen, 4" FWVGA of 245ppi, and a dual-core Krait processor, plus 720p video capture with its 5MP camera. These are specs that can be hard to find in the Xperia M's price bracket. Most entry-level Androids either have Cortex-A9 CPUs (or A5/A7), or record only VGA video or have sub-WVGA screens, which is why entry-level Windows Phone handsets are such an enticing alternative in the price range.

Key features

  • Quad-band GSM/GPRS/EDGE and dual or quad-band HSPA support
  • Also available in a dual-SIM variant, called Xperia M dual
  • 21 Mbps HSDPA and 5.76 Mbps HSUPA
  • 4" 16M-color TFT capacitive touchscreen of FWVGA resolution (480 x 854 pixels) at 245ppi
  • Android OS v4.1.2 Jelly Bean
  • Dual-core 1 GHz Krait CPU, Adreno 305 GPU, Qualcomm MSM8227 Snapdragon chipset
  • 1 GB of RAM
  • 4 GB of built-in storage (2 GB user available)
  • microSD slot (cards up to 32GB supported)
  • 5 MP autofocus camera, single LED flashlight, geo-tagging, touch focus, HDR, hardware shutter key; VGA front-facing camera
  • 720p @ 30fps video capture
  • Wi-Fi a/b/g/n, Wi-Fi hotspot
  • Bluetooth 4.0 with A2DP
  • NFC support
  • ANT+ support for connecting low-power wireless sports accessories
  • PlayStation certified
  • Accelerometer, ambient light and proximity sensor
  • Standard 3.5 mm audio jack; Walkman music player with many audio enhancements
  • Stereo FM radio with RDS
  • microUSB port (charging)
  • Built-in LED strip provides a breathing light and notification light
  • 1,750mAh Li-Ion battery, user-replaceable

Main disadvantages

  • Still and video camera quality not great
  • No Mobile BRAVIA engine for the screen
  • Screen has sub-par viewing angles
  • Poor video codec support out of the box
  • Limited internal storage for installing apps
Sony may have hit a spot that Samsung, LG and HTC haven't thoroughly covered, which bodes well for the young Xperia M. The optional dual-SIM is great too, since a good smartphone with a second SIM slot can prove harder to find than you would expect (with screen, camera and chipset considerations in mind).
The Sony Xperia M runs Android 4.1 with Sony's magic sprinkled over many of the apps, including a Walkman music player with a dazzling array of sound enhancement options, plus the Album and Movies apps, which have some unique media management skills.

Sony Xperia M 
The bold Purple and Yellow colors are a plus too, with an excellent, soft touch plastic on the back - a welcome break from black-or-white options and the prevailing glossy plastics.

Unboxing the Xperia M

The Sony Xperia M comes in an old-fashioned box - big and colorful - which contains the phone itself, the battery, a compact charger and a microUSB cable. A single-piece headset is also in the bundle (though our review unit came without the full set of accessories so we didn't have one).
Sony Xperia M Sony Xperia M
Sony Xperia M retail box, sans the headset

Design and handling

The Sony Xperia M closely follows the design guidelines of the Xperia family, without being too similar (like the Galaxy line). It has the trademark round, metal power key (the so-called OmniBalance design), slightly recessed sides of contrasting material like on the Xperia Z, an RGB light below the screen and a shutter key. The end result is one very attractive phone, despite being low on the totem pole.
Sony Xperia M Sony Xperia M
Xperia M follows the OmniBalance design language
The front holds the 4" LCD screen, surrounded by relatively big bezels (especially top and bottom, considering there are no physical buttons). Even so, the Xperia M is not a large device.
The back has a slight curve like Xperias of the Sony Ericsson era. It's made of plastic that wraps around the sides of the phone, giving it a nice unibody impression, but is actually removable so you can access the battery and the card slots.

The back is slightly curved
Another plus about the back is the material - it's a matte plastic with a soft touch finish, making it very pleasant to the touch and fingerprint-resistsant (but can be a bit hard to clean once it inevitably gets smudgy in the end).
It all culminates in a great in-hand feel for the Xperia M - it's small and fits easily in the hand, the materials are pleasant and it's pretty light. At 9.3mm it's not the thinnest phone around but slips very easily into pockets and, again considering its price tag, the M is very well proportioned having an overall impression of a pricier phone.


The earpiece is above the screen and to the left of it is the VGA front-facing camera, along with the proximity and ambient light sensors. Below the screen is the RGB notification light, which can use different colors to alert you to missed events and you can use the settings to customize the colors for different events. It's a bit too small for our liking, but works well enough even during the day.
Sony Xperia M Sony Xperia M
Earpiece, VGA camera and sensors above the screen • RGB light
The mic pinhole is also on the front, which makes it hard to accidentally cover with your finger.
The right side of the phone is where all the physical buttons are - starting with the Power/Lock key (which looks good but is also big and easy to press), the volume rocker (which is also easy to use) and the shutter key. The shutter key was a bit of a disappointment as it doesn't provide a solid click, but it's still a great option to have.
Sony Xperia M Sony Xperia M Sony Xperia M
Physical shutter key, volume rocker and aluminum power button
The top and left sides of the Xperia M is where the two wired ports reside, one on each side. The 3.5mm audio jack is on top in the center and the microUSB port is on the left. The port supports MHL so you can use it as a TV-out with an appropriate adapter to HDMI.
Sony Xperia M Sony Xperia M Sony Xperia M Sony Xperia M
MHL-enabled USB port • 3.5mm audio jack
The lanyard eyelet is at the bottom of the phone and you have to open the back panel to put the strap in.
Sony Xperia M Sony Xperia M
Lanyard eyelet on the bottom
While the back cover is open, you can also access the 1,750mAh battery and the microSD card slot (which you'll probably rely heavily on as the Xperia M provides only about 2GB of user accessible storage). Also here you'll spot either one or two microSIM card compartments, depending on which version of the phone you got (we have the single-SIM version).
Sony Xperia M Sony Xperia M
The battery compartment, microSIM and microSD card slots are all easily accessible
Also on the back is the 5MP camera with LED flash and the loudspeaker.
Sony Xperia M Sony Xperia M Sony Xperia M
The back of the Xperia M holds the camera, its flash and the loudspeaker
The phone comes in Black, White, Purple and Yellow, but we should mention that the Yellow version is not available in dual-SIM flavor for some reason.

Battery life

The Sony Xperia M battery isn't that big - a capacity of 1,750mAh is nothing to write home about, but the Samsung Galaxy S4 mini (also available in single and dual-SIM versions) has a 1,900mAh battery and the HTC One mini has a 1,800mAh and both are 4.3" phones. What we mean to say is, even though it may not be much, it's ok for its class.


Sunday, 7 April 2013

The best blog topics that generate maximum traffic to your site

top 10 topics to blog aboutThe thought of becoming an entrepreneur and building your own empire in no time was a dream few years back, but with online money making opportunities today, it is all possible. The urge to start a blog and becoming rich and popular at the same time is increasing day by day, resulting in producing thousands of Newbie Bloggers each week. However, it greatly disappoints them when soon they realize that their blog would hardly generate any revenue for them, forcing them to leave this domain to earn money.
It’s important to figure out about the most productive niches that generate maximum revenue, even before planning to start a blog. What happens for example is, a person might be a good painter and plans to share his painting techniques and his creations on his blog. The idea is appreciable if we talk in terms of talent, but such a blog would hardly attract any traffic. The reason behind this is, the global change is making lives busy where people do not have time to read about your skills, but are in search of fulfilling their own thirst.

Many of our readers have been complaining since a long time that their blogs are not paying them anything, so here is something they need to check about their blogs.
If you are looking forward to high profits in return of easy blogging, you must first know which niche to choose as your blog topic.


health related blogsAs the world going online, people are now interested to find solutions for their health related matters online. This blogging niche enjoys an open traffic where there are no barriers of culture, state or society. A person from Pakistan would be equally interested to know about the remedy for losing his weight as a person from USA. If you have a command on medicine and fitness related issues and think you have the potentials to provide people worth-reading and then worth-following tips regarding fitness and Health, then you will see a huge traffic following your blog in no time.


learn about fashioon on blogsHealth and fitness blogs are mostly visited only by those who are either going through some disease or are way to curious to learn tips for their fitness. But above health blogs, comes Fashion. Knowing about health is need but learning all about fashion is addiction. If you have got that glamorous side of yours and enjoy learning and sharing about Fashion trends leading the society, you can really earn huge money with it. People all over the world find internet as the most easiest access to know about fashion and follow it.


relationship blogsRecent statistics have shown that 90% of the people have an emotional part in their personalities that leaves an effect on the entire life per fifteen hours a day as an average. People find internet as the most secure way to improve their relationships, believing in the idea of self-aiding learning online about professional working relationships, love relationships and getting advises from people around the globe. According to the latest reveals, blogs with this domain enjoy huge traffic.


finance blogsMan’s love for Money will last till the end of this world. This common nature of people to learn ways to double their money forces them to search about such methods. Blogs having a domain related to ways of improving their finances and helping them setting up their own business, telling ways to manage their money always appeal them, further generating good traffic for a blog.

6. Question and Answer Blogs

question and answer blogsLet us go back to school to make the concept clear. Which teacher you preferred to visit the most in times of need, the one who always had a solution for your problems or the one who used to tell you to “come later”? We all have same views about it I hope. Similarly, starting a blog with a niche of active question and answer session will soon generate considerable revenue for you. People look forward to places where they can be listened and can get their queries been answered. Just like, you can start a question and answer blog and make real dollars with it!

5. Celebrities

all about celebrities on blogsThe easiest- yet the most interesting niche to adopt in a blogging career is undoubtedly to start writing reviews, updates, latest photos and everything associated with them, is the celebrities. The best part about this domain is, all you need to have as your qualifications to rule is your interest in entertainment world

4. Buy and sell

buy and sell blogsOnline shopping has taken up the physical market with a great pace. Now you choose all what you want to buy from your living room and get it delivered at your doorsteps. If you have the ability to work like a middle man, establishing a forum similar to, you can attract bulk of visitors each day.

3. Social Media

social media blogsThis post will be too less to describe the power of social media at this time of life where one might not have a bank account but must be having three or four accounts on different social networking websites. Due to the huge number of Social media users, the sites that write about every single happening on Social media get the most of the benefit. Take an example of What do you think is the reason for the success of this site? It can’t be uniqueness, there are much better unique sites available than it, it can’t also be a good grammar, as even I have been noticing grammatical mistakes in the posts plenty of times. Then what makes it a hit? It’s the domain of the blog! People want to know each and everything about their social media. Therefore, picking this niche to start a blog is one of the best choices available among the most productive niches.

2. Technology

technology has been making Millions of Dollars each year by simply cashing its niche. In this Hi-tech world, staying up to date with the latest technology been revealed in the market is mandatory. Moreover, the biggest benefit of choosing this niche as your blogging topic is , when a new gadget/device is launched in to the market, it automatically creates a hype, big enough to bring visitors to your blog to know more about it. This happens every time-little too often, ensuring a continuous inflow of money.

1. Blogging Tips

bloggingtips websitesBlogging has recently become too popular even in the developing countries. The best sources to learn for the new bloggers are the blogs themselves. Just like MBT, blogs having a domain of sharing tips and tricks, making blogging easy with tutorials and everything related to blogging world are earning considerably large at this time. However, such domains require you to have the capability and knowledge about web designing and web development so that whatever content you share, it gains reliability for you from your readers.
The decisions you take on initial stages while starting a business, decides the future of it, therefore always play it safe and think about your potentials and pick the domain that goes most smooth with it.
All the best

Tuesday, 2 April 2013

6 ways to make money via Blogging

                         There are so many ways of adding advertisements to your blog. Choosing the right method depends on what type of ads you want shown on your blog and which online advertising program you want to sign up with. Some of the most popular ad publishing companies for blog advertising include Google AdSense and Yahoo Publisher but there are many more options available. Once you have chosen which publishers to use to add ads to your blog you can sign up for their service through their website and follow their requirements for displaying ads on your blog.

Google AdSense

  1. 1
    Place contextual ads on your blog using Google AdSense. Contextual ads work by first determining what type of content is shown on your blog and then delivering ads that match the nature of the content (for example, if your blog is about real estate the contextual ads may be about real estate agents). You don't have to worry about which specific ads to show because Google does that for you.

Yahoo Publisher

  1. 2
    Use Yahoo Publisher as an alternate to Google AdSense if you have a blog that gets a lot of traffic (high number of visitors each day). Yahoo Publisher only displays contextual ads on websites and blogs that have high traffic but the revenue is generally considered to be higher than Google AdSense, so if you qualify to place ads on your blog through Yahoo Publisher it can prove beneficial for you.


  1. 3
    Take a risk by using Adbrite for contextual ads if you feel the risk is worth taking. There is a risk involved because even though using Adbrite can increase the income that you earn through your blog, many of the ads displayed by Adbrite are for gambling and promiscuous businesses. Such ads may offend your blog viewers and decrease your blog traffic, depending on the nature of your blog content and target audience.

Advertising Networks

  1. 4
    Pick specifically which ads you want to display on your blog through advertising networks. You have to have very high blog traffic to be considered by advertising networks (at least a few thousand visitors per day) but if you qualify, you can depend on a more steady income coming through well-established advertising corporations that usually pay handsomely to place ads on your blog. You can also provide information directly about your blog and select what type of advertisements you want shown. Here are some advertising networks that you can look into for adding advertisements on your blog.
    • Blogads
    • BuzzMachine
    • Federated Media
    • TechCrunch

Affiliation Advertisements

  1. 5
    Add affiliation ads to your blog if you feel that your blog visitors would be interested in purchasing products from another website. For example, if your blog is about books you could join Amazon's Associates Program, which is an affiliate program that will pay you every time someone goes to Amazon using an advertisement on your blog and makes a purchase. Usually you are paid a percentage of the purchase amount, similar to how a salesman earns commission for selling products that are offered for sale by other companies.

Links Within Blog Text

  1. 6
    Sign up for services such as Text Link Ads if you want to get paid for text links on your blog. For example, let's say you wrote a blog post about auto repair. Text Link Ads or a similar online advertising program may decide to pay you for changing the words "auto repair" in your blog into a text link that leads to the website of the auto repair company that is paying for the advertisement. 1 great benefit of text link ads is that they don't use any additional space on your blog design to add ads to your blog, you merely change the text that already exists into a link
  2. *infollinks etc.

Ad publishers for the advertisers 

                    Apart from the Google adsense and yahoo publishers there are lots of ad publishers to advertise various products and services through various websites and blogs. based on the topic advertisers have the freedom to choose which is the best website or blog to place there ad's. one of the important thing to be noted is the traffic of the blog/website which you are going to place your ad. then only get the maximum viewers to your ad. some of the Ad publishing sites are as follows.

                  Infolinks etc.

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Monday, 18 March 2013

Samsung galaxy S4 Complete review

The Samsung Galaxy S4 release date, price and specs has officially been unveiled - the phone will hit shelves by the end of April in India
                 It's official and it's now here, the Samsung Galaxy S4 has been revealed in New York. Although many of the features had been leaked in the weeks leading up to the event, the launch was still a time for Samsung to show-off its latest handset, while no doubt making sure that Apple's got its work cut-out with the iPhone 5S.
Here we'll take a look at the phone's new features and outline its key specifications. For a more in-depth look, check out our Samsung Galaxy Specs article.
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With the Galaxy S3 proving to be such a success, Samsung hasn't strayed too far from that design with the Galaxy S4. The rounded edges and lozenge-shaped home button at the bottom of the phone are all instantly recognisable.
Samsung Galaxy S4
The Samsung Galaxy S4 is thinner and lighter than the Samsung Galaxy S3
While the S3 looked and felt, well, quite plasticy, the Samsung S4 looks that much nicer and more like the high-end phone that it should be. It has a polycarbonate case, but it's now slimmer (7.9mm) and lighter (130g) than its predecessor.
Two versions of the phone will be available: Black Mist and White Frost. It's hard to pass judgement on the phone until we've seen it in the flesh, but in the shots we've seen it certainly looks like a step up from the Samsung Galaxy S3.
Samsung Galaxy S4
Available in black or white, the Samsung Galaxy S4 is instantly recognisable


As expected, the Galaxy S4 has a 5in Full HD (1,920x1,080) Super AMOLED screen. That's a stunning 441ppi, making this one of the highest-density phones that we've seen. The HTC One manages slightly more at 468ppi, thanks to its slightly-smaller 4.7in Full HD screen. On balance, though, you're going to find it hard to tell the difference or spot individual pixels on either screen.
There was no mention of the Green PHOLED technology, which was rumoured to be making its first appearance here. However, we've been impressed with Samsung's Super AMOLED technology before and it's always been power efficient, helping to save battery life.
As expected, the screen can be operated just by hovering your finger over it, giving rise to two new features. Air View lets you hover over content, such as an email or photo, to preview it without having to open it. Air Gesture, lets you change tracks, scroll through a web page or answer a call with the wave of your hand. We haven't had chance to try the system out yet, but this should make fine-control of the touchscreen operating system that little bit easier.
Samsung Galaxy S4
Air View and Air Gesture let you operate the touchscreen without touching it
Gorilla Glass 3 helps make the phone durable, although we'd still recommend a screen protector or case if you're going to keep your phone in a pocket with sharp items, such as keys.


Cameras are an important part of any smartphone, with many people preferring them to compact cameras. From the specifications, Samsung hasn't let us down with the Galaxy S4 camera, with a 13-megapixel rear camera, complete with Flash and a high-speed shutter mode. At the front is a 2-megapixel camera.
Samsung Galaxy S4
The 13-megapixel rear camera certainly has impressive specifications, but the front camera can be used to control the phone
Now, two cameras on a smartphone is hardly something new, but with Dual Camera you can operate both of them at the same time. It feels a little gimmicky to us, but the idea is that you can film yourself with the front camera and then superimpose yourself on the footage from the rear camera. The examples we've seen look a little twee and we're not sure that most people want their faces to appear surrounded by a postage stamp border over the footage they're recording.
Samsung Galaxy S4
You can superimpose yourself as a floating stamp in videos, if you like that kind of thing
The front camera also serves a purpose in controlling the phone with Smart Pause. This technology knows when you're looking at the screen so it can, for example, pause a video when you turn your head and look away. As soon as you look back, the video continues. It's a neat way of using the cameras for more than just still images and video.


We were expecting the Octa-Core Samsung Exynos 5 processor in the phone and that's an option, with a 1.6GHz model. However, a 1.9GHz Quad-Core version of the phone will also be sold, depending on where you live in the world. Samsung hasn't specified yet which version we'll get in the UK, although we would expect to get the Octa-Core model.
The company tweeted a rendering of the new chip, which is also rumoured to power the new Galaxy Note 3 phone/tablet, from its @SamsungExynos Twitter account, so whetting the appetites of Samsung fans everywhere.
The new chip's eight-core design is based on ARM's big.LITTLE architecture. This means that there are four powerful Cortex-A15 cores for the phone's most power-hungry functions, and four lower-power Cortex-A7 models to take care of simpler tasks. When the phone isn't needed to do anything fancy, the more powerful cores shut down, extending battery life.


Speaking of battery life, the new handset will use a 2,600mAh battery. That's 500mAh bigger than the one in the S3 and should be big enough to cope with the slightly-enlarged screen, and the greater demands of 4G, while still running all day.
The battery is also removable, so you can carry a charged spare if you're going to be out for a long time. It also means that a failing battery can easily be replaced.


You can't make a modern phone and not support the latest wireless standards, so the Samsung Galaxy S4 has full support for 4G LTE networks. Global 4G support has been promised, supporting download speeds of 100Mbit/s and uploads of 50Mbit/s. Full 3G and 2.5G support is, of course, also present.
For use at home there's also better Wi-Fi support, with the new 802.11ac standard supported. We've seen this networking standard deliver speeds well over 200Mbit/s, so using super-fast broadband speeds on your phone at home is going to easy.


NFC makes an appearance, so the phone will be compatible with Google Wallet, so you can pay for goods in compatible shops using just your phone. It will also support Visa's payWave, widening the choice and range of places that you can shop in.
In addition, Samsung showed some other ways that NFC can be used. One of the most different was Group Play. By tapping your Samsung Galaxy S4 to another one, you can share music and pictures. Samsung has also promised that the technology will support multi-player gaming and it's opening up the SDK to encourage other companies to develop for it.


No great surprises on the storage front, with 16GB, 32GB and 64GB models announced. However, it's good to see that there's still a microSD card slot, so you can add up to 64GB of storage. Depending on the prices, it may even work out cheaper to buy a lower-capacity model and then upgrade it when you need to with a memory card.


With fitness accessories apps being big business, Samsung clearly doesn't want to miss out and has launched S Health with the Galaxy S4. Using your phone a variety of accessories, you'll be able to measure your weight and health.


If all of that wasn't enough, the Galaxy S4 also has an IR transmitter, which you can use to control your home entertainment kit via the WatchOn app. There's also S Voice Drive, which puts up a simpler interface for when you're driving and recognises voice prompts. Finally, when you're abroad the translation services let you type in a message and have the phone read it out in a different language; the spoken reply is then converted back into your language on the screen.

price expected to be INR 40,000 in India 

24% Price Drop: Samsung 40" Black LED 1080P HDTV - UN40F5500AFXZA
samsung galaxy S4 unpacked 

Thanks for watching........

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Tuesday, 12 March 2013

The Green Report

NOTE :-This report is not meant for those who wish to ape the western and forgetting the mother INDIA....if you love your nation, love your culture then at least you have to think about this !

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                In the last 25 years India has been considered as a agriculture economy and due to this very fact, agriculture occupies a predominant position in the developmental process. this are not just a source of income it's a part our culture. however in this sector people are not living with it, they are just surviving due to some fundamental problems that curtail the growth in this sector. 

               Although agriculture plays a pivotal role in the country's economy it is backward and traditional when compared with developed countries of the West. Agricultural productivity is low and the economic condition of the farmers is poor.
The investment in agricultural sector is lower than industrial and commercial sectors and the pace of modernization is very slow. Following is a brief mention of some of the problems which are retarding the development of agriculture in the country.

1. Uneconomic Size of Landholdings and their Fragmentation
Foregoing description leads us to conclude that majority of land holdings in India are too small to be economically viable to promote modern agricultural development. These do not generate enough income to buy new agricultural inputs or make heavy investment. Small size accompanied with fragmentation also prevents the use of new farm machinery which are very essential in today's agriculture.
The fact may be well exemplified by citing the example of Punjab where land holdings are comparatively bigger in size. This is one of the important reasons for the success of green revolution in this region. Elsewhere small and fragmented holdings, unequal distribution of agricultural land and faulty land tenure make the matter worse.
Although Zamindari has been abolished but its effects have not been completely wiped out. There is a large number of landless labourers who are paid paltry sum as wages and have to work as bonded labourers. Their condition is deplorable. Agriculture also has a section of landowners who act as absentee landlords and get their cultivation done through tenants and sharecroppers. None of them is interested to make investments for agricultural im­provements.
2. Poverty and Indebtedness of Farmers
Although peasants indebtedness is universal in subsistent farming, but its impact is perhaps nowhere as crushing as in Indian agriculture. An estimate of the All Indian Rural Credit Survey of 1954-56 indicated that nearly 70 per cent of all the cultivating families were in debt. New data confirm the continuance of large scale and deep-rooted rural poverty in the country. According to one estimate the average annual per capita income of an Indian farmer is about Rs. 2,000.
The lot of the landless cultivators is even more pitiable. Although government-run cooperative societies are offering credit facilities to farmers but their impact is only limited to the upper and middle classes of the cultivators. The bulk of peasantry belonging to the lower section has to still take shelter of big landlords and profes­sional money-lenders that charge exorbitant inter­est on loans (20 to 36 per cent per annum) and soon grab their property making them pauper. Average Indian farmers' income is hardly sufficient to meet its dire needs. That is why he is not in a position to make desirable investment in agriculture, use new agricultural inputs and adopt new technology. Pov­erty is, therefore, a serious impediment in the mod­ernisation and development of Indian agriculture.
Majority of Indian farmers are still elite who are not aware of new improvements in garniture, new government schemes for improving lots of the farmers or recent change in government policy towards agriculture. That is why people participation is very poor in agricultural development programmes and most of the subsidies loans either remain unutilized or go to the hands untargeted groups.
3. Scarcity of Agricultural Inputs
On the one hand farmers are less receptive to agricultural innovations on the other hand mostly the agricultural inputs like chemical fertilisers, high yielding varieties of seeds, insecticides, pesticides, weedicides, farm machineries etc. are either not available in sufficient quantity or their prices at beyond the reach of an ordinary farmer. Due to lad of quality control there is always possibility of hugger.
In 1992-93 about 58.5 lakh quintals of improved seeds were used on about 70 million hectares of agricultural land. This area is only 39 per cent of the total cropped area of the country. The total consumption of chemical fertilisers was 135.64 lakh tones in 1994-95 against the internal produc­tion of 104.38 lakh tones (31.26 lakh tones im­ported).
This gives a per hectare average of 0.075 tone of fertiliser consumption which is quite insuf­ficient to raise agricultural output. Only 41.4 per cent of the cropped area enjoys the facility of assured irrigation leaving out the remaining 58.6 per cent to the mercy of rainfall. The use of pesticides and insecticides is very limited and Indian farmers are almost unfamiliar with herbicides and weedicides, hence, a sizeable production (about 10%) is lost every year.
4. Lack of Infrastructural Facilities
Rural areas in India lack proper transport and communication facilities. Rural roads are unsurfaced and kachcha cart tracks are not useable during rainy season. Although a massive drive for road construc­tion has been launched to connect all villages having more than 1500 population with all weather surface roads but still the objective is difficult to be realised.
Telephone and telegraph facilities are still consid­ered luxury although the government has promised to provide telephone link to all a Panchayats of the country. Banking facilities are mostly confined to the urban areas. All this has hampered the devel­opment of agricultural and industrial activities in the rural areas.
5. Low Productivity
One of the main problems of Indian agricul­ture is its low productivity. Table 8.VIII showing major crop-yields of selected countries indicate that the Indian agricultural yields are among the lowest in the world, although there has been marked improvement in per hectare yield since 1950-51. The world average of wheat yield per hectare is 30% higher than Indian yield. Similarly the world aver­age yield for rice is 60% higher, millets 80% higher, potatoes 60% higher, maize 140% higher and cotton 250% higher than their respective Indian yields.
The main cause of this low per hectare yield is due to low fertility of soil and less care to replenish it through artificial fertilizers. "An average farmer, deep in debt, does not have the resources to apply nitrogen, potash, or potassium to the crops. Invest­ment in chemical fertilization could lead to his economic ruination. Burnt stubble, branches, leaf mold, or animal manure application are his chief means of fertilization.
6. Lack of Agricultural Research, Education & Training Facilities
In India agricultural research is still in infan­tile stage. There is also no co-ordination between the farm and the research laboratory. Hence gains of new researches are not reaching the common farmer. Very little attention is being paid for educating and training farmers for adopting new farming tech­niques, increasing agricultural production and mak­ing it profitable and sustainable.
7. Soil Erosion and Soil Degradation
Soil erosion is not only a major cause for decreasing soil fertility but loss of valuable cropped land. In India about 80 million hectares of the coun­try's area is facing the menacing problem of soil erosion. About 4 million hectares of area is in the form of ravines and gullies.


                               My dream :)

        My dream :) is to developing a better solution programs for all these obstacles and to give  rebirth a nation with self sufficient and self reliant without loosing our own culture and identity.


      Above we discussed some of the basic problems that we are facing in the agrarian sector. in order to get rid out of this we have to take some decision or changes that will sustain our nation's growth in the agriculture sector.From my admittedly cursory review I noticed several recurring themes, which I discuss in no particular order: 

1. Increase farmer’s access to markets. 

The World Bank cites an “almost universal lack of good extension services” to farmers as a major factor inhibiting growth. In addition to the miserable infrastructure in many rural areas, the inability of farmers to directly access markets has sustained the presence of a chain of middlemen through whom most agricultural commodities must circulate before finally reaching consumers. Many SHGs have, with great success, arranged cooperatives that bypass such middlemen and sell directly to wholesalers. The government should learn from the success of such initiatives and try to help streamline the agricultural commodity supply chain. 

2. Improve agricultural productivity. 

In spite of the gains of the Green Revolution, Indian agriculture lags behind in terms of technology take-up and production efficiency. Lack of access to credit, which we discussed earlier, may be one of the factors inhibiting farmers from investing in technology. However, the ground reality also suggests that poor education and lack of awareness of the benefits of new technology is also a factor. In addition, the epic and recurring issue of poor irrigation and infrastructure is widely recognized as a drain on productivity in many regions (Its estimated that about 10% of all agricultural production in India is wasted due to lack of storage, transport, etc). The government already proved itself capable of stimulating advances in agricultural productivity with the Green Revolution. Future policies should focus on providing incentives to farmers to adopt better production technology, bridging the information gap that currently exists in the agricultural sector, and remedying severe underdevelopment of irrigation and infrastructure facilities.

3. Reconsider distortionary subsidies and other policies. 

Currently, the Indian government sets a minimum support price for almost all agricultural commodities. Farmers who produce various goods are guaranteed the option of selling directly to the government at a price fixed in the beginning of the season. The stated goal of this policy is to “ensuring remunerative prices to the growers for their produce with a view to (sic) encouraging higher investment and production.” The inherent endogeneity of MSP policy makes a rigorous impact assessment difficult, but the persistently low productivity growth in agriculture suggests that the MSP policies have failed to stimulate sufficient capital investments by farmers. Its conceivable the virtual subsidy provided by MSPs might actually dampen incentives for technology take-up by guaranteeing a basic level of income security. Furthermore, the existence of MSPs may encourage agricultural production for which there is actually limited demand in private markets, leading to unbalanced and suboptimal production choices by individual farmers. The process by which which MSPs are set is also somewhat dubious, and many have suggested that the current price-setting system is vulnerable to political manipulation and lack of parity across goods. Although scrapping MSPs would obviously expose a large number of farmers to the risk of price shocks, it seems to me that improving farmers access to insurance products and commodity futures markets is more sustainable and optimal way to manage such risks. 

4. Improve public education. 

Even if agricultural productivity does increase, it is still likely to lag behind the explosive IT and service sectors. However, the public education system is clearly failing to provide rural children with the skills necessary to enter these labor markets. This is perhaps the single biggest factor inhibiting the transition from agriculture to service sector employment. The demand for skilled workers in India has exploded, particularly in the service sector, demand which many firms are finding difficult to meet domestically due to extremely skewed distribution of human capital (something Doug discussed in the previous post). 

5. Promote non-farm entrepreneurship among farmers. 
Although India’s rural poor are by and large uneducated, many of them are capable of operating small businesses that have higher returns than traditional agriculture. However, their ability to start such business is often hampered by lack of access to credit and capital. In spite of the microfinance “revolution” and government policies designed to stimulate capital flow to the rural population (such as priority sector lending), there is still a massive failure of credit markets to meet the demands of the rural population. Empirical research has demonstrated that returns to capital are extremely high in microenterprises (roughly 80% in Sri Lanka), which of course suggests that there is tremendous potential for farmers who start operating small businesses to supplement or replace their primary line of work.

 Let's hope for a Green India .......

I’d be interested in hearing peoples opinions on any of these issues, and think this discussion would particularly benefit from the observations of people working in rural areas.

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